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Educational Learning Theories: Chapter 10 Required Reading

Chapter 10 Required Reading

Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr. Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning). It is most often used when designing lesson objectives, learning goals, and instructional activities. Bloom et al. (1956) identified three domains of educational activities or learning:

  • Cognitive Domain: mental skills (knowledge)
  • Psychomotor Domain: manual or physical skills (skills)
  • Affective Domain: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude)

Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a little bigger than what would be normally used. Domains may be thought of as categories. Instructional designers, trainers, and educators often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge [cognitive], Skills [psychomotor], and Attitudes [affective]). This taxonomy of learning behaviors may be thought of as “the goals of the learning process.” That is, after a learning episode, the learner should have acquired a new skill, knowledge, and/or attitude.

While Bloom et al. (1956) produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains, they omitted the psychomotor domain. Their explanation for this oversight was that they have little experience in teaching manual skills within the college level. However, there have been at least three psychomotor models created by other researchers. Their compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions, starting from the simplest cognitive process or behavior to the most complex. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised, such as the Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO). However, Bloom's Taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today.

The Cognitive Domain (Clarka, 2015a)

The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills (Bloom, 1956). This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major levels of cognitive processes, starting from the simplest to the most complex. The levels can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first ones must normally be mastered before the next one can take place.

  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, and David Krathwohl revisited the cognitive domain in the mid-nineties and made some changes, with perhaps the three most prominent ones being:

  • Changing the names in the six levels from noun to verb forms;
  • Rearranging them as shown in Figure 10.1 and Figure 10.2; and
  • Creating a cognitive processes and knowledge dimension matrix (Anderson et al., 2000; Figure 10.5, Figure 10.6, & Figure 10.7).             

Figure 10.2 Original and Revised Cognitive Domain

Figure 10.2. The chart shown above compares the original taxonomy with the revised one.

This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of thinking and is perhaps more accurate. The new version of Bloom's Taxonomy with examples and keywords is shown in Figure 10.3.

Figure 10.3 Levels of Original and Revised Cognitive Domain with Examples and Key Words

Old (Original) Cognitive Domain

New (Revised) Cognitive Domain

Levels

Examples, Key Words (Verbs), and Learning Activities and Technologies

Levels

Examples, Key Words (Verbs), and Learning Activities and Technologies

Knowledge: Recall data or information.

Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Know the safety rules. Define a term.

Key Words: arranges, defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states

Technologies: bookmarking, flash cards, Internet search, reading

Remembering: Recall or retrieve previous learned information.

Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Recite the safety rules.

Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states

Technologies: book marking, flash cards, rote learning based on repetition, reading

Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.

Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.

Key Words: comprehends, converts, diagrams, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates

Technologies: create an analogy, participating in cooperative learning, taking notes, story telling

Understanding: Comprehending the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.

Examples: Rewrite the principles of test writing. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translate an equation into a computer spreadsheet.

Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates

Technologies: create an analogy, participating in cooperative learning, taking notes, storytelling, Internet search

Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Apply what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.

Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.

Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses

Technologies: collaborative learning, create a process, blog, practice

Applying: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Apply what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.

Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.

Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses

Technologies: collaborative learning, create a process, blog, practice

Analysis: Separate material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguish between facts and inferences.

Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.

Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates

Technologies: fishbowls, debating, questioning what happened, run a test

Analyzing: Separate material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguish between facts and inferences.

Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.

Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates

Technologies: fishbowls, debating, questioning what happened, run a test

Synthesis: Build a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.

Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome.

Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes

Technologies: essay, networking

Evaluating: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.

Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports

Technologies: survey, blogging

Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.

Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports

Technologies: survey, blogging

Creating: Build a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.

Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrate training from several sources to solve a problem. Revise and process to improve the outcome.

Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes

Technologies: create a new model, write an essay, network with others

Cognitive Processes and Levels of Knowledge Matrix

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy not only improved the usability of it by using action words, but added a Cognitive Process Dimension and Knowledge Dimension Matrix (Figure 10.4). While Bloom's original cognitive taxonomy did mention three levels of knowledge or products that could be processed, they were not discussed very much and remained one-dimensional:

  • Factual: The basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems.
  • Conceptual: The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together.
  • Procedural: How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods.

In Krathwohl and Anderson's (2001) revised version, the authors combine the cognitive processes with the above three levels of knowledge to form a matrix. In addition, they added another level of knowledge-metacognition:

  • Metacognitive: Knowledge of cognition in general, as well as awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition.

When the cognitive and knowledge dimensions are arranged in a matrix, as shown below, it makes a nice performance aid for creating performance objectives (Figure 10.4).

Figure 10.4 Cognitive Process Dimension and Knowledge Dimension Matrix

The Cognitive Process Dimension

The Knowledge Dimension

Remember

Understand

Apply

Analyze

Evaluate

Create

Factual

Conceptual

Procedural

Metacognitive

 

 

However, others have also identified five contents or artifacts (Clark & Chopeta, 2004; Clark & Mayer, 2007) for the knowledge dimension (Figure 10.5):

  • Facts: Specific and unique data or instance.
  • Concepts: A class of items, words, or ideas that are known by a common name, includes multiple specific examples, shares common features. There are two types of concepts: concrete and abstract.
  • Processes: A flow of events or activities that describe how things work rather than how to do things. There are normally two types: business processes that describe work flows and technical processes that describe how things work in equipment or nature. They may be thought of as the big picture, of how something works.
  • Procedures: A series of step-by-step actions and decisions that result in the achievement of a task. There are two types of actions: linear and branched.
  • Principles: Guidelines, rules, and parameters that govern. It includes not only what should be done, but also what should not be done. Principles allow one to make predictions and draw implications. Given an effect, one can infer the cause of a phenomena. Principles are the basic building blocks of causal models or theoretical models (theories).

Thus, the new Cognitive Process Dimension and Knowledge Dimension Matrix would look as shown in Figure 10.5.

Figure 10.5 Revised Cognitive Process Dimension and Knowledge Dimension Matrix

The Cognitive Process Dimension

The Knowledge Dimension

Remember

Understand

Apply

Analyze

Evaluate

Create

Facts

Concepts

Processes

Procedures

Principles

Metacognitive

An example matrix that has been filled in will look like Figure 10.6:

Figure 10.6 Filled in Cognitive Process Dimension and Knowledge Dimension Matrix

The Cognitive Process Dimension

The Knowledge Dimension

Remember

Understand

Apply

Analyze

Evaluate

Create

Facts

list

paraphrase

classify

outline

rank

categorize

Concepts

recall

explain

show

contrast

criticize

modify

Processes

outline

estimate

produce

diagram

defend

design

Procedures

reproduce

give an example

relate

identify

critique

plan

Principles

state

convert

solve

differentiate

conclude

revise

Metacognitive

proper use

interpret

discover

infer

predict

actualize

The Psychomotor Domain (Clark, 2015b)

The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) (Figure 10.7) includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. Thus, psychomotor skills rage from manual tasks, such as digging a ditch or washing a car, to more complex tasks, such as operating a complex piece of machinery or dancing.

Figure 10.7 Levels of Psychomotor Domain

                         

The seven major levels (Figure 10.8) are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex (Simpson, 1972):

Figure 10.8 Levels of Psychomotor Domain with Examples and Key Words by Simpson (1972)

Levels

Examples and Key Words (Verbs)

Perception (awareness): The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.

Examples: Detect non-verbal communication cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjust heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. Adjust the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet.

Key Words: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects

Set: Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets).

Examples: Know and act upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. Recognize one's abilities and limitations. Show desire to learn a new process (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the “Responding to phenomena” subdivision of the Affective domain.

Key Words: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers

Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that include imitation, trial, and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing.

Examples: Perform a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follow instructions to build a model. Respond hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift.

Key Words: copies, traces, follows, reacts, reproduces, responds

Mechanism (basic proficiency): This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency.

Examples: Use a personal computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drive a car.

Key Words: assembles, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches

Complex Overt Response (Expert): The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players are often utter sounds of satisfaction as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce.

Examples: Maneuver a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operate a computer quickly and accurately. Display competence while playing the piano.

Key Words: assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches

NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism, but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc.

Adaptation: Skills are well-developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.

Examples: Respond effectively to unexpected experiences. Modify instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Perform a task with a machine, which was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task).

Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies

Origination: The creating of new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.

Examples: Construct a new theory. Develop a new and comprehensive training programming. Create a new gymnastic routine.

Key Words: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates

Other Psychomotor Domain Taxonomies

Bloom et al. (1956) did not produce a compilation for the psychomotor domain model, but others have. The one discussed above is by Simpson (1972) (Figure 10.8). There are two other popular versions by Dave (1970) (Figure 10.9) and Harrow (1972) (Figure 10.10):

Figure 10.9 Levels of Psychomotor Domain with Examples and Key Words by Dave (1970)

Levels

Examples and Key Words (Verbs)

Imitation: Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low quality.

Examples: Copying a work of art. Performing a skill while observing a demonstrator.

Key Words: copy, follow, mimic, repeat, replicate, reproduce, trace

Manipulation: Being able to perform certain actions by memory or following instructions.

Examples: Being able to perform a skill on one's own after taking lessons or reading about it. Following instructions to build a model.

Key Words: act, build, execute, perform

Precision: Refining, becoming more exact. Performing a skill within a high degree of precision.

Examples: Working and reworking something, so it will be “just right.” Performing a skill or task without assistance. Demonstrating a task to a beginner.

Key Words: calibrate, demonstrate, master, perfection

Articulation: Coordinating and adapting a series of actions to achieve harmony and internal consistency.

Examples: Combining a series of skills to produce a video that involves music, drama, color, sound, etc. Combining a series of skills or activities to meet a novel requirement.

Key Words: adapt, constructs, combine, creates, customize, modifies, formulate

Naturalization: Mastering a high level of performance until it become second-nature or natural, without needing to think much about it.

Examples: Maneuvering a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operating a computer quickly and accurately. Displaying competence while playing the piano. Michael Jordan playing basketball or Nancy Lopez hitting a golf ball.

Key Words: create, design, develop, invent, manage, naturally

Figure 10.10 Levels of Psychomotor Domain with Examples and Key Words by Harrow (1972)

Levels

Examples and Key Words (Verbs)

Reflex Movements: Reactions that are not learned, such as an involuntary reaction.

Examples:  instinctive response

Key Words: react, respond

Fundamental Movements: Basic movements such as walking, or grasping.

Examples: performing a simple task

Key Words: grasp an object, throw a ball, walk

Perceptual Abilities: Response to stimuli such as visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or tactile discrimination.

Examples:  tracking a moving object, recognizing a pattern

Key Words: catch a ball, draw or write

Physical Abilities (fitness): Stamina that must be developed for further development such as strength and agility.

Examples: gaining strength, running a marathon

Key Words: agility, endurance, strength

Skilled Movements: Advanced learned movements as one would find in sports or acting.

Examples: Using an advanced series of integrated movements, performing a role in a stage play or play in a set of series in a sports game.

Key Words: adapt, constructs, creates, modifies

Non-discursive Communication: Effective use body language, such as gestures and facial expressions.

Examples: Expressing one's self by using movements and gestures

Key Words: arrange, compose, interpretation 

The Affective Domain (Clark, 2015c)

The affective domain is one of three domains in Bloom's Taxonomy, with the other two being the cognitive and psychomotor (Bloom, et al., 1956).  The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major levels are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex (Figure 10.11 & Figure 10.12):

Figure 10.11 Levels of Affective Domain

                                

 

Figure 10.12 Levels of Affective Domain with Examples and Key Words

Levels

Examples and Key Words (Verbs)

Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention.

Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people.

Key Words: acknowledges, asks, follows, gives, listens, understands

Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. Attend and react to a particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation).

Examples: Participate in class discussions. Give a presentation. Question new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in order to fully understand them. Know the safety rules and practice them.

Key Words: answers, assists, aids, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, presents, tells

Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable.

Examples: Demonstrate belief in the democratic process. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences (value diversity). Show the ability to solve problems. Propose a plan to social improvement and follows through with commitment. Inform management on matters that one feels strongly about.

Key Words: appreciates, cherishes, treasures, demonstrates, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, respects, shares

Organizing: The organizing of values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating a unique value system. The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. 

Examples: Recognize the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Explain the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accept professional ethical standards. Create a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritize time effectively to meet the needs of the organization, family, and self.

Key Words: compares, relates, synthesizes

Internalizing Values (characterization): Having a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most important characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional).

Examples: Show self-reliance when working independently. Cooperate in group activities (display teamwork). Use an objective approach in problem solving. Display a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. Revise judgments and change behavior in light of new evidence. Value people for what they are, not how they look.

Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, modifies, performs, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies

Educational Implications (Clark, 2015d)

Learning or instructional strategies determine the approach for achieving the learning objectives and are included in the pre-instructional activities, information presentation, learner activities, testing, and follow-through. The strategies are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles (Ekwensi, Moranski, &Townsend-Sweet, 2006). Thus the learning objectives point you towards the instructional strategies, while the instructional strategies will point you to the medium that will deliver or assist the delivery of the instruction, such as elearning, self-study, classroom learning and instructional activities, etc.

The Instructional Strategy Selection Chart (Figure 10.13) shown below is a general guideline for selecting the teaching and learning strategy. It is based on Bloom's Taxonomy (Learning Domains). The matrix generally runs from the passive learning methods (top rows) to the more active participation methods (bottom rows). Bloom's Taxonomy (the right three columns) runs from top to bottom, with the lower level behaviors being on top and the higher behaviors being on the bottom. That is, there is a direct correlation in learning:

  • Lower levels of performance can normally be taught using the more passive learning methods.
  • Higher levels of performance usually require some sort of action or involvement by the learners.

Figure 10.13 Instructional Strategy Selection Chart

Instructional Strategy

Cognitive

Domain
(Bloom, 1956)

Psychomotor Domain
(Simpson, 1972)

Affective

Domain
(Krathwohl, Bloom,

& Masia, 1973)

Lecture, reading, audio/visual, demonstration, or guided observations, question and answer period.

  1.  Knowledge
  1. Perception
  2. Set

1. Receiving Phenomena

Discussions, multimedia, Socratic didactic method, reflection. Activities such as surveys, role playing, case studies, fishbowls, etc.

  1. Comprehension

      (Understanding)

3.  Application

      (Applying)

3. Guided Response

4. Mechanism

2. Responding to Phenomena

Practice by doing (some direction or coaching is required), to simulated learning settings.

4.  Analysis

    (Analyzing)

5. Complex Response

3. Valuing

Use in real situations. May use several high-level activities.

5. Synthesis

    (Evaluating)

6. Adaptation

4. Organizing Values into Priorities

Normally developed on own (informal learning) through self-study or learning through mistakes, but mentoring and coaching can speed the process.

6. Evaluation

   (Creating)

7. Origination

5. Internalizing Values

Figure 10.13. The chart above does not cover all possibilities, but most activities should fit in. For example, self-study could fall under reading, audio visual, and/or activities, depending upon the type of learning environment and activities teachers design.

Criticisms of Bloom’s Taxonomy

As Morshead (1965) pointed out on the publication of the second volume, the classification was not a properly constructed taxonomy, as it lacked a systemic rationale of construction. This was subsequently acknowledged in the discussion of the original taxonomy in its 2000 revision (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001), and the taxonomy was reestablished on more systematic lines. It is generally considered that the role the taxonomy played in systematizing a field was more important than any perceived lack of rigor in its construction.

Some critiques of the taxonomy's cognitive domain admit the existence of six categories of cognitive domain but question the existence of a sequential, hierarchical link (Paul, 1993). Often, educators view the taxonomy as a hierarchy and may mistakenly dismiss the lowest levels as unworthy of teaching (Flannery, 2007; Lawler, 2016). The learning of the lower levels enables the building of skills in the higher levels of the taxonomy, and in some fields, the most important skills are in the lower levels, such as identification of species of plants and animals in the field of natural history (Flannery, 2007; Lawler, 2016). Instructional scaffolding of higher-level skills from lower-level skills is an application of Vygotskian constructivism (Keene, Colvin, & Sissons, 2010; Vygotsky, 1978).

Some consider the three lowest levels as hierarchically ordered, but the three higher levels as parallel (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). Others say that it is sometimes better to move to Application before introducing concepts (Tomei, 2010, p.66). The idea is to create a learning environment where the real world context comes first and the theory second to promote the student's grasp of the phenomenon, concept or event. This thinking would seem to relate to the method of problem-based learning.

Furthermore, the distinction between the categories can be seen as artificial since any given cognitive task may entail a number of processes. It could even be argued that any attempt to nicely categorize cognitive processes into clean, cut-and-dried classifications undermines the holistic, highly connective and interrelated nature of cognition (Fadul, 2009). This is a criticism that can be directed at taxonomies of mental processes in general.

REFRENCES

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., … Wittrock, M. C. (2000). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, Handbook I: The cognitive domain. New York, NY: David McKay Co Inc.

Bloom, B.S. (Ed.). Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, Handbook I: The cognitive domain. New York, NY: David McKay Co., Inc.

Clark, D. R. (2015, January 12). Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains. Retrieved from http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html#three_domains

Clark, D. R. (2015a, January 12). Bloom’s Taxonomy: The original cognitive domain. Retrieved from http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/Bloom/original_cognitive_version.html

Clark, D. R. (2015b, January 12). Bloom’s taxonomy: The psychomotor domain. Retrieved from http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/Bloom/psychomotor_domain.html

Clark, D. R. (2015c, January 12). Bloom’s taxonomy: The affective domain. Retrieved from http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/Bloom/affective_domain.html

Clark, D. R. (2015d, January 12). Learning strategies or instructional strategies. Retrieved from http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/strategy.html

Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2007). E-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Clark, R., & Chopeta, L. (2004). Graphics for learning: Proven guidelines for planning, designing, and evaluating visuals in training materials. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

Dave, R. H. (1970). Psychomotor levels. In R. J. Armstrong (Ed.), Developing and writing behavioral objectives (pp. 20-21). Tucson, AZ: Educational Innovators Press.

Ekwensi, F., Moranski, J., & Townsend-Sweet, M., (2006). E-Learning concepts and techniques. Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania's Department of Instructional Technology. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4ccf/02a87d6044fd181f1efcc0e2f819ef826486.pdf

Fadul, J. A. (2009). Collective learning: Applying distributed cognition for collective intelligence. The International Journal of Learning, 16(4), 211-220.

Flannery, M. C. (2007, November). Observations on biology. The American Biology Teacher, 69(9), 561-564. doi:10.1662/0002-7685(2007)69[561:OOB]2.0.CO;2

Harrow, A. (1972). A taxonomy of psychomotor domain: A guide for developing behavioral objectives. New York, NY: David McKay Co., Inc.

Keene, J., Colvin, J., & Sissons, J. (2010, June). Mapping student information literacy activity against Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive skills. Journal of Information Literacy, 4(1), 6-21. doi:10.11645/4.1.189

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